Management activities covered under Shared and State Schemes are mostly intervention measures related to,

  • Habitat restoration and improvement
  • Protection and Conservation measures
  • Management planning and Human Resources Development
  • Eco Development and Community participation in conservation of bio resources.
  • Mitigation of Human Wildlife Conflict
  • Promotion of low impact eco - tourism.

Some of the major schemes are,

  • Integrated development of wildlife habitats
  • Project Tiger
  • Project Elephant
  • Biosphere Reserve
  • Conservation Reserve
  • Mangroves and Coral Reefs
  • Wetlands

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats 

Integrated Development of Wildlife habitats has following components:

  • Support to Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves) 
  • Protection of wildlife outside protected areas.
  • Recovery programmes for saving critically endangered species and habitats.

The Nilgiris Tahr which is endemic to Western Ghat of Tamil Nadu and Kerala has been identified under the said recovery programme.

The Government of India has sanctioned funds for 30 schemes for the developmental activities in National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Conservation reserves. The scheme has been implemented with an outlay of Rs.6.13 crore for the year 2018-19. This scheme will be continued during 2019-20 with a proposed outlay of Rs.5.18 crore.


Project Tiger

Tiger being the top carnivore, the importance of its conservation lies in the fact that the presence of this predator is an indicator of the overall health of an ecosystem. Various measures to conserve Tigers and their habitats have been taken up by the Forest Department in the four Tiger Reserves viz., Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve in Tirunelveli district, Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Coimbatore and Tiruppur districts, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Nilgiris district and Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Erode district. The scheme provides assistance for works relating to habitat conservation and protection including fire prevention, eco-development, improvement of water sources, tourism development, mitigating human wildlife conflicts and improvement of infrastructure facilities in the Tiger Reserves. To reduce the anthropogenic disturbances in Critical Tiger Habitats in Tiger Reserves, 435 families have been relocated from core area of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. Further with respect to recurring works the funds are sanctioned in the ratio of 50:50 by the Central and State Governments. During 2018-19 the scheme has been implemented at a cost of Rs.49.59 crore. This scheme will continue during 2019-20 with proposed outlay of Rs.29.87 crore.

Project Elephant:

Tamil Nadu is one among the leading States implementing Project Elephant, pursuing scientific management and habitat conservation. The elephant population in Tamil Nadu has been estimated to be 2761 during May 2017. The Project Elephant scheme is implemented in large contiguous elephant landscapes categorized for management as Elephant Reserves and these Reserves have no separate legal status. The scheme in Tamil Nadu is being implemented in the four elephant Reserves to protect the elephants and improve their habitats. The scheme also includes payment of compensation to farmers for the crop damages and loss of human lives caused by human wildlife conflict and further to take necessary steps to minimize such conflicts. During 2018-19 the scheme has been implemented at a cost of Rs.4.58 crore. Around 4000 man-days were generated during the implementation of this scheme. The Scheme will continue during 2019-20 with proposed outlay of Rs.4.50 crore.

Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve 

Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve is a Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats and Nilgiris range of Southern India. Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve contains following forest types: Moist evergreen, Semi-evergreen, Thorny, Savana, Shola and grass land. Out of 3,300 species of flowering plants , 132 species are endemic to the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve. Fauna of the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve includes about 100 species of reptiles and amphibians, 300 species of butterflies, 31 amphibians and 60 species of reptiles endemic to the Western Ghats. The Reserve encompasses 5,520 in the southern States of which Tamil Nadu portion is 2537.6 It forms an almost complete ring around the Nilgiris Plateau. The Tamil Nadu Part covers parts of The Nilgiris, Erode and Coimbatore Districts. This area is very rich in Flora and Fauna. The scheme has been implemented at an outlay of Rs.0.61 Crore during 2018-19. The scheme will continue during 2019-20 with a proposed outlay of Rs.1.00 crore. 


a) Extent of ESZ:

The extent of ESZ of Protected Areas will have to be kept flexible and Protected Area specific. The width of the ESZ and type of regulations will differ from PA to PA. In case of sensitive corridors, connectivity and ecologically important patches, crucial for landscape linkage, are even beyond 10 km.

b) The procedure to be adopted:

A committee comprising the concerned Wildlife Warden, District Forest Officer an ecologist, an official from the Local Self Government and an official of the Revenue Department of the concerned area, may be formed.  The committee may suggest; extent of ESZ, the requirement of such a zone to act as a shock absorber, best methods for management of the eco-sensitive zones, broad based thematic activities to be included in the Management Plan for the region


The erstwhile Integrated Forest Protection Scheme has been implemented as a centrally sponsored scheme. The components of the scheme are protection of forest resources by strengthening protection measures for controlling forest fires, survey and demarcation of the forest boundaries to prevent encroachments by constructing the cairns, improvement of roads, provision of better communication facilities, preparation of working plans for scientific management of forest divisions, etc.                

With a view to make the Integrated Forest Protection Scheme broader based, Government of India renamed this scheme as "Intensification of Forest Management".  In addition to the existing components, the following four more new components have been added.

  • Protection and conservation of sacred groves,
  • Conservation and restoration of unique vegetation and ecosystems,
  • Control and eradication of forest invasive species and
  • Preparedness for meeting challenges of bamboo flowering and improved management of bamboo forests.

Details of expenditure incurred under this scheme are as follows:

Year Financial Achievement (Rs. in lakh)
2010-11 249.28
2011-12 237.13
2012-13 234.60
2013-14 No sanction received from Government of India
2014-15 No sanction received from Government of India
2015-16 316.36


In Tamil Nadu, the forests extend over an area of 22,877 sq. kms. This constitutes 17.59% of the State’s geographical area. One-third of the forest area is estimated to be degraded due to anthropogenic pressures. In order to restore the degraded forests in Tamil Nadu and to achieve the national target of 33% under forest and tree cover, many schemes have been / are being implemented.

NAP Scheme of MoEF&CC, GoI aims to support and accelerate the ongoing process of devolving forest protection, management and development functions to decentralized institutions of Joint Forest Management Committee (JFMC) at the village level, and Forest Development Agency (FDA) at the forest division level.

The National Afforestation Programme (NAP) is one of such schemes being implemented in Tamil Nadu. This scheme launched during 2002-03 is being implemented by the Tamil Nadu Forest Department with 100% central assistance and the objectives of the schemes are (i) to increase and / or improve forest and tree cover, (ii) Rehabilitation of degraded forests and other areas by institutionalizing decentralized / participatory forest management and supplementing livelihoods improvement process (village development, employment generation). The scheme is being implemented in three tier set up viz., State Forest Development agency, Tamil Nadu (a body registered under Societies Registration Act), Forest Development Agency and JFMCs. There are 33 Forest Development Agencies and 1230 Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs).