Management activities covered under Shared and State Schemes are mostly intervention measures related to,

  • Habitat restoration and improvement
  • Protection and Conservation measures
  • Management planning and Human Resources Development
  • Eco Development and Community participation in conservation of bio resources.
  • Mitigation of Human Wildlife Conflict
  • Promotion of low impact eco-tourism.

These schemes are implemented with fund shared by Government of India and the State Government in a ratio of 60:40. The major centrally sponsored schemes are as follows:-

Some of the major schemes are,

  • Integrated development of wildlife habitats
  • Project Tiger
  • Project Elephant
  • Biosphere Reserve
  • Conservation Reserve
  • Mangroves and Coral Reefs
  • Wetlands

Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats 

Integrated Development of Wildlife habitats has following components:

  • Support to Protected Areas (National Parks, Wildlife sanctuaries, Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves)
  • Protection of wildlife outside the PAs.
  • Recovery programmes for saving critically endangered species and their habitats.

The Nilgiris Tahr which is endemic to the Western Ghats of Tamil Nadu and Kerala has been identified under the said recovery programme. The Government of India has sanctioned funds for 30 schemes for the developmental activities in National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries and Conservation reserves. The scheme has been implemented with an outlay of Rs.8.76 crore for the year 2019-20. This scheme will be continued during 2020-21.

This scheme will help out to achieve the SDG Target 15.5 under Goal No.15. 

Project Tiger

Tiger, being the top carnivore, importance of its conservation lies in the fact that its presence in a natural forest habitat is an indicator of the overall health of the forest ecosystem. Various steps to conserve tigers and their habitats have been taken up by the Forest Department in the four Tiger Reserves viz., Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve in Tirunelveli district, Anamalai Tiger Reserve in Coimbatore and Tiruppur districts, Mudumalai Tiger Reserve in Nilgiris district and Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve in Erode district. The scheme provides assistance for works relating to habitat conservation and protection including fire prevention, eco-development, improvement of water sources, tourism development, mitigating human wildlife conflicts and improvement of infrastructure facilities in the Tiger Reserves. To reduce the anthropogenic disturbances in Critical Tiger Habitats in Tiger Reserves, 435   families have been relocated from core area of Mudumalai Tiger Reserve. Further with respect to recurring works the funds are sanctioned in the ratio of 50:50 by the Central and State Governments. During 2019-20 the scheme has been implemented at a cost of Rs.41.56 crore. This scheme will continue during 2020-21.

This scheme will assist to achieve the SDG Target 15.5 under Goal No.15.

Project Elephant:

Tamil Nadu is one among the leading states implementing the Project Elephant programme of the Government of India, pursuing scientific management and habitat conservation. The elephant population in Tamil Nadu has been estimated as 2761 individuals in May 2017. The Project Elephant scheme is implemented in large contiguous elephant landscapes categorized for management as Elephant Reserves and these Reserves have no separate legal status.  The scheme in Tamil Nadu is being implemented in the four elephant Reserves to protect the elephants and improve their habitats. The scheme also includes payment of compensation to farmers for the crop damages and loss of human lives caused by human wildlife conflict and further to take necessary steps to minimize such conflicts. During 2019-20 the scheme has been implemented at a cost of Rs.6.01 crore. Around 4000 man-days were generated out of implementation of this scheme. The Scheme will continue at an outlay of Rs.0.72 crore during 2020-21.

This scheme will enable to achieve the SDG Target 15.5 under Goal No.15.

Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve: 

Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve is a Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats and Nilgiris range of Southern India. Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve contains following forest types: Moist evergreen, Semi-evergreen, Thorny, Savana, Shola and grass land. Out of 3,300 species of flowering plants, 132 species are endemic to the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve.  Fauna of the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve includes about 100 species of reptiles and amphibians, 300 species of butterflies, 31 amphibians and 60 species of reptiles are endemic to the Western Ghats.  The Reserve encompasses 5,520 in the 3 southern states of which Tamil Nadu portion is about 2537.6 sq.kms. It forms an almost complete ring around the Nilgiris Plateau. The Tamil Nadu Part covers parts of the Nilgiris, Erode and Coimbatore districts. This area is very rich in Flora and Fauna. The scheme has been implemented at an outlay of Rs.2.95 crore during 2019-20. The scheme will continue during 2020-21.

This scheme will assist to achieve the SDG Targets 15.1, 15.4 and 15.5 under Goal No.15.

Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve:

The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve known for its chain of 21 coral-rich islands along with coast line from Rameswaram to Thoothukudi which was declared as Marine National Park in 1986 by the Government of Tamil Nadu. Later in 1989, Government of India declared it as the first Marine Biosphere Reserve of India. With its rich biodiversity of about 4,223 species of various flora and fauna, the Reserve is well endowed with coral reefs, sea grass and mangroves. The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve supports several critically endangered species such as Dugong dugong (sea cow), sharks including whale shark, sea horses, green sea turtles, dolphins, and sea cucumbers among other species.

The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Trust was established in 2001 with a view to ensure speedy and efficient implementation of the GEF UNDP funded project on ‘Conservation and sustainable use of the coastal biodiversity of Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve’. The activities under the project were implemented for 10 years from 2003 to 2012 and the activities were further continued from State Government funding from 2013 onwards. The major achievements have been Awareness generation, institution building and strengthening of EDCs/VMCs, decreasing biotic pressure, enhance livelihood options, strengthening park management and research activities. The microfinance corpus fund of Rs.8.93 crore created for EDC/VMCs has earned a profit of Rs.4.49 crore by way of interest from beneficiaries of microfinance and Rs.2.27 crore by way of interest accrual from bank since inception. These accomplishments will be further consolidated by mainstreaming this programme with the regular schemes and programmes of the Government of India and that of Tamil Nadu State.

The Government of India sanctions funds for the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve under two separate schemes viz. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve and Conservation and Management of coral reefs. The scheme has been implemented with an outlay of Rs.4.87 crore during 2019-20. The scheme will continue during 2020-21.

This scheme will enable to achieve the SDG Target 14.2 under Goal No.14. 

Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve: 

The Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve has been included by UNESCO in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves considering the presence of its rich and unique ecosystems and landscapes. The total area of the Biosphere reserve is 3500.36 sq.kms, of which 1828 sq. km. is in Kerala and 1672.36 sq. kms. fall in Tamil Nadu in Tirunelveli and Kanniyakumari districts in Tamil Nadu. The scheme has been implemented at an outlay of Rs.3.57 crore during 2019-20. The scheme is proposed to continue during 2020-21.       

This scheme will assist to achieve the SDG Targets 15.1, 15.4 and 15.5 under Goal No.15.

Wetland Conservation and Development: 

Wetlands are integral to a healthy environment. They help to retain water during dry periods, thus keeping the water table high and relatively stable. During the period of flooding, they act to reduce flood levels and to trap suspended solids and nutrients. Ecosystem services offered by wetlands include floodwater storage and control, recharge of aquifers, treatment of waste water and pollution abatement, general water quality improvement, habitats for fish, birds and plant species. In addition, wetlands are of high aesthetic and heritage values providing opportunities for recreation, research, and education.

In Tamil Nadu, this scheme is being implemented in Point Calimere, Kazhuveli and Pallikaranai wetlands. Major activities involved in Wetland management are Habitat improvement, Wildlife Protection, Eco-development activities, Awareness creation, Research and Monitoring and Nature Education. The Scheme has been implemented during 2019-20 with an outlay of Rs.2.44 crore and will continue during 2020-21.

This scheme will enable to achieve the SDG Target 14.2 under Goal No.14.

Conservation and Management of Mangroves

Mangroves are plants that survive high salinity, tidal regimes, strong wind velocity, high temperature and muddy anaerobic soil – a combination of conditions hostile for other plants. Mangrove ecosystem constitutes a bridge between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Mangrove functions as breeding, feeding, nursery grounds for most of the sport and commercial fishes found in the deep coastal waters and inshore waters. They also provide breeding ground for birds, reptiles and mammals. The mangroves such as Muthupet, Pitchavaram and Ramanathapuram, constituted as Reserve Forests, are under the control of Forest Department. Habitat improvement measures such as mangrove restoration in degraded lands, maintenance of older plantation, removal of invasive species, protection, eco development activities, awareness creation, monitoring and evaluation etc. are the major activities. The scheme has been implemented at an outlay of Rs.1.89 crore during the year 2019-20 and the scheme will continue during 2020-21 and an amount of Rs.0.76 crore is provided.

This scheme will enable to achieve the SDG Target 14.2 under Goal No.14.



a) Extent of ESZ:

The extent of ESZ of Protected Areas will have to be kept flexible and Protected Area specific. The width of the ESZ and type of regulations will differ from PA to PA. In case of sensitive corridors, connectivity and ecologically important patches, crucial for landscape linkage, are even beyond 10 km.

b) The procedure to be adopted:

A committee comprising the concerned Wildlife Warden, District Forest Officer an ecologist, an official from the Local Self Government and an official of the Revenue Department of the concerned area, may be formed.  The committee may suggest; extent of ESZ, the requirement of such a zone to act as a shock absorber, best methods for management of the eco-sensitive zones, broad based thematic activities to be included in the Management Plan for the region

Forest Fire prevention and management

The scheme of Intensification of Forest Management Scheme has been modified by Government of India to Forest Fire Prevention and Management Scheme with focus on fire prevention, detection and management. The scheme provides support for procurement of firefighting equipment, controlled burning, fire line clearing, maintenance of fire lines, soil and moisture conservation works, awareness creation, capacity building of local community, research, monitoring etc.  The scheme was implemented during 2018-19 at a cost of Rs.1.64 crore.  The scheme was sanctioned by GOI with an outlay of Rs.3.34 crore during 2019-20.  This scheme will continue during 2020-21.

This scheme will enable to achieve the SDG Target 15.1 under Goal No.15.


In Tamil Nadu, the forests extend over an area of 22,877 sq. kms. This constitutes 17.59% of the State’s geographical area. One-third of the forest area is estimated to be degraded due to anthropogenic pressures. In order to restore the degraded forests in Tamil Nadu and to achieve the national target of 33% under forest and tree cover, many schemes have been / are being implemented.

NAP Scheme of MoEF&CC, GoI aims to support and accelerate the ongoing process of devolving forest protection, management and development functions to decentralized institutions of Joint Forest Management Committee (JFMC) at the village level, and Forest Development Agency (FDA) at the forest division level.

The National Afforestation Programme (NAP) is one of such schemes being implemented in Tamil Nadu. This scheme launched during 2002-03 is being implemented by the Tamil Nadu Forest Department with 100% central assistance and the objectives of the schemes are (i) to increase and / or improve forest and tree cover, (ii) Rehabilitation of degraded forests and other areas by institutionalizing decentralized / participatory forest management and supplementing livelihoods improvement process (village development, employment generation). The scheme is being implemented in three tier set up viz., State Forest Development agency, Tamil Nadu (a body registered under Societies Registration Act), Forest Development Agency and JFMCs. There are 33 Forest Development Agencies and 1230 Joint Forest Management Committees (JFMCs).